Eckhart von Hochheim, more commonly known as Meister Eckhart, was an influential German theologian, philosopher, and mystic who lived in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. His precise dates of birth and death are uncertain, but scholars generally agree that he was born around 1260 and died around 1328.
Eckhart was born in the village of Hochheim or Hocheim, near Gotha, in the Landgraviate of Thuringia, in the Holy Roman Empire. His education and spiritual formation were deeply shaped by the Order of Preachers, also known as the Dominican Order, which he joined at a very young age. This order, founded by Saint Dominic in the early 13th century, was dedicated to preaching, teaching, and rigorous intellectual inquiry, particularly into theological matters.
Through his association with the Dominicans, Eckhart received a thorough education that encompassed not only theology but also philosophy, languages, and the sciences of his time. His intellectual acuity and spiritual depth quickly caught the attention of his superiors, and he was sent to study at the University of Paris, which was the premier intellectual institution of the time.
In Paris, Eckhart became familiar with the works of Aristotle, as well as those of Christian, Jewish, and Muslim philosophers who had interpreted Aristotle’s ideas in various ways. He would later incorporate some of these Aristotelian concepts into his own theological and philosophical system. Eckhart eventually became a Master of Theology at the University of Paris, earning him the title “Meister” or “Master.”
Returning to Germany, Eckhart served in various positions within the Dominican Order, including as a provincial (regional leader) and as a vicar (representative of the order’s general leadership). Despite his administrative responsibilities, Eckhart never lost his passion for teaching and preaching, and he left behind a substantial body of work in the form of sermons, treatises, and commentaries on the Bible.
Eckhart’s teachings focused on the notion of the union of the human soul with God. He believed that at the core of each individual was a “spark” or “ground” of the soul that was in direct communion with the divine. This divine spark, Eckhart maintained, was unaffected by sin and was always united with God, regardless of an individual’s actions or beliefs.
Eckhart also emphasized the concept of detachment or “letting go.” For Eckhart, to become truly united with God, an individual had to let go of all desires, thoughts, and individual will. Only in this state of emptiness or “poverty” could an individual fully experience the divine.
Despite, or perhaps because of, his innovative thinking, Eckhart ran into conflict with the religious authorities of his time. Some of his ideas seemed to challenge traditional understandings of Christian faith, and in 1326, Pope John XXII convened a papal commission to examine Eckhart’s writings. Two years later, the pope issued a bull (an official papal document) declaring some of Eckhart’s propositions heretical.
Eckhart, however, had already submitted a formal statement defending himself and declaring his willingness to correct any errors in his teaching. He died before a final judgment was rendered. Despite this controversy, Eckhart’s teachings have had a lasting impact, influencing generations of theologians, philosophers, and spiritual seekers.
In the centuries following his death, Eckhart’s ideas continued to resonate. His emphasis on the direct, intimate experience of God found a receptive audience among other Christian mystics, and his speculative philosophical ideas attracted the interest of philosophers. Today, Eckhart is often cited as a key figure in the Western mystical tradition. His writings, still widely read and studied, continue to offer rich material for contemplation and analysis.
In the centuries following his death, Eckhart’s works were rediscovered by various groups. In the 19th and 20th centuries, his writings garnered new attention and appreciation, not only from Christian theologians but also from philosophers, psychologists, and those interested in spirituality beyond traditional religious boundaries. His unique fusion of mysticism, philosophy, and theology continues to captivate and intrigue scholars, and his ideas continue to be studied in universities and theological institutions.
Eckhart’s teachings have also found resonance in unexpected places. In the realm of psychology, his notions of detachment and the divine spark within each individual have been seen as anticipating certain aspects of modern psychoanalysis and depth psychology. Some interpreters of Eckhart have also found parallels between his ideas and those of non-Christian religions and spiritual traditions, including Buddhism and Hinduism.