Begging the Question (Circular Reasoning): This is a logical fallacy in which the writer or speaker assumes the statement under examination to be true. In other words, the argument’s premise assumes the truth of the conclusion, instead of supporting it. It’s called “circular” because it circles back to its own assumption, rather than providing a real argument.
Example: “God exists because the Bible says so, and the Bible is the word of God.”
In this example, the argument is trying to prove the existence of God using the Bible. However, the authority of the Bible is derived from the assumption that God exists and that the Bible is His word. Essentially, the argument is saying that God exists because God says He exists, making it circular and lacking external validation.
This type of fallacy can sometimes be difficult to spot because the circularity might be hidden within a larger set of arguments or statements.