Bertrand Russell’s quote, “Science is what you know, philosophy is what you don’t know,” invites contemplation about the realms of knowledge and inquiry encompassed by science and philosophy, respectively.
In one perspective, science is often regarded as a domain of knowledge that deals with things that are known, understood, or can be systematically studied and validated through empirical observation, experimentation, and logical analysis. It thrives on verifiable facts and empirical data, aiming to describe, explain, and predict natural phenomena through a systematic methodology. Thus, “what you know” in the realm of science pertains to knowledge that has been, or can be, substantiated and accepted as conforming to the facts or truth, based on empirical evidence and rational reasoning.
On the other hand, philosophy grapples with fundamental questions that may not yet be answerable through empirical means or scientific methods. It ventures into realms of inquiry involving concepts like existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language, which often explore the abstract, the hypothetical, and the yet-to-be-known. Philosophy is not constrained by the empirical data available and navigates through speculative and normative realms, addressing questions about what one ought to do (ethics), what exists (metaphysics), and what we can know (epistemology), amongst other topics.
Russell’s dichotomy of science and philosophy indicates that while science navigates through the domain of established knowledge, providing us with a reliable understanding of the world as we know it, philosophy dives into the abyss of the unknown, unearthing and exploring questions that science is not yet equipped to answer.
Nonetheless, it’s worth noting that science and philosophy are not mutually exclusive but rather, complement one another. The methodologies and discoveries of science often have philosophical implications, while philosophical inquiries and principles can shape scientific exploration. Philosophy raises profound questions and foundational issues that can guide scientific endeavors, and science, in turn, expands the boundaries of what we know, enabling philosophy to further explore the implications of such knowledge. So, while the quote delineates aspects of knowledge and inquiry, it also alludes to an implicit interplay where science and philosophy enrich, challenge, and propel each other forward in the perpetual pursuit of understanding.